Pooled Risk-Benefit Analysis of Long-Term Antiplatelet Therapies for Non-Cardioembolic Transient Ischemic Attack or Stroke
Dixon Yang, MD
Hilkens NA, Algra A, Diener HC, Bath PM, Csiba L, Hacke W, Kappelle LJ, Koudstaal PJ, Leys D, Mas J-L, et al. Balancing Benefits and Risks of Long-Term Antiplatelet Therapy in Noncardioembolic Transient Ischemic Attack or Stroke. Stroke. 2021.
Aspirin monotherapy, aspirin with dipyridamole, and clopidogrel alone are the first-line antithrombotic therapies for long-term secondary prevention of non-cardioembolic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). In clinical practice, we often consider an individual patient’s bleeding risks against potential benefits of reduced ischemic events from these single antiplatelet agents. Assessing risk-benefit by stratification of bleeding risk may help guide clinical decision-making. Therefore, Hilkens et al. sought to investigate the net benefit of antiplatelet treatment according to an individual’s bleeding risk through pooled analysis of six randomized control trials.
The authors pooled individual patient data from CAPRIE, ESPS-2, MATCH, CHARISMA, ESPRIT, and PRoFESS, which investigated antiplatelet therapy in the subacute or chronic phase after non-cardioembolic stroke or TIA. The authors stratified patients into quintiles by their individually calculated S2TOP-BLEED score, derived from sex, smoking, modified Rankin Scale, prior stroke, hypertension, body mass index, age, and diabetes. For each quintile, the authors determined the annual rate of major bleeding and recurrent ischemic events of: 1) aspirin monotherapy; 2) aspirin-clopidogrel versus monotherapy; 3) aspirin-dipyridamole versus clopidogrel; and 4) aspirin versus clopidogrel. In the second, third, and fourth comparisons, the authors calculated net benefit.